Other Articles by Author(s)

M. Farasat Shamir
Tayyaba Naz

Author(s) and WSEAS

M. Farasat Shamir
Tayyaba Naz

WSEAS Transactions on Systems

Print ISSN: 1109-2777
E-ISSN: 2224-2678

Volume 17, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 17, 2018

Friedmann-Robertson-Walker with Categorization of Scale Factor by Noether’s Method

AUTHORS: M. Farasat Shamir, Tayyaba Naz

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ABSTRACT: Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models represent behavior of universe. Expansion of universe could be better understood by considering Robertson-Walker scale factor m and m(t) where t represents time . Here FRW spacetime was classified by using Noether’s guage symmetries.The behavior of spacetime was different for different kinds of universe i.e. closed, open, and flat. These types are defined according to curvature parameter c. For closed universe c=-1, for open universe c=1, and for flat universe c=0 . We obtained nontrivial symmetries for distinct values of scale factor . With the help of Noether equation and Perturbed Lagrangian a system of partial differential equations was acquired . For the universe as defined above, largest set and least set of Noether operators were obtained. Every operator has integral of motion

KEYWORDS: FRW spacetime, Symmetry operators, Conserved quantities


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WSEAS Transactions on Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2777 / 2224-2678, Volume 17, 2018, Art. #5, pp. 47-52

Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

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