WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 13, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 13, 2017

A Strategy in Adjustment of Combustion Parameters of SI-PFI Engine with Pure Bioethanol Fuelled for a High Performance and Low Emission

AUTHORS: Marthen Paloboran, I. Nyoman Sutantra, Bambang Sudarmanta, Darmawang, Gayuh Agung Pamuji

Download as PDF

ABSTRACT: Many researchers reported that the gasoline-Bioethanol blend have a big advantage to reduced hydrocarbon emissions. But, there was an inconsistence in increases of NOx emission when the blend contained by Bioethanol less than 50%. Usage of pure Bioethanol fuels (E100) is one of solution to minimized NOx emission. This work investigated the effect of E100 on performances and emissions of spark ignition engine with varied compression ratio and engine speed. This study is a continuation research with applying two methodology. Mapping the injection duration is a method that used at the first study. In mapping the injection duration, the ignition timing was fixed at 7o BTDC. But in this research, mapping the ignition timing strategy will complement of the first methodology. This paper evaluated advances of ignition timing from 10 to 22o BTDC with an increment of 4o BTDC. All the results will be compared with previous study, even when the engine runs with E0 fuels. Fortunately, there are a significance increase in performances was being achieved by this experiment as an improvement of previous process. The values describes about increases of the torque, power, BMEP and thermal efficiency as well as decreases of SFC and CO emission, meanwhile, HC emission tend to stable

KEYWORDS: injection duration, ignition timing, compression ratio, advance, pure bioethanol, mapping


[1]. Havard Devold, An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry, Oil and gas production handbook, ISBN 978-82-997886-3-2, Oslo, 2013

[2]. Mustafa Balat, Havva Balat, ”Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel”, Elsevier, Applied Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.03.015, Vol. 86, pp. 2273-2282

[3]. Alvydas Pikūnas, Saugirdas Pukalskas, and Juozas Grabys, “Influence of composition of gasoline-ethanol blends on parameters of internal combustion engines”, Journal of KONES Internal Combustion Engines, Vol. 10, n.3-4, 2003

[4]. Mustafa Balat, Havva Balata and Cahide OZ , “Progress in bioethanol processing”, Elsevier, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, DOI: 10.1016/j.pecs.2007.11.001, Vol. 34, pp. 551-573

[5]. Dewan Energi Nasional, Outlook energy Indonesia 2014”, Jakarta-Indonesia, 2014

[6]. Saleh Abdulrahman, Outlook energy Indonesia 2015”, Sekretaris Jenderal Dewan Energi Nasional, ISSN: 2503-1597, Jakarta-Indonesia, 2016

[7]. Marthen Paloboran, Bambang Sudarmanta, I Nyoman Sutantra, “Performances and emissions characteristics of three main types composition of gasoline–ethanol blended in spark ignition engines”, Prise Worthy Prize, International Review of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 10, n. 7, pp. 552-559, November 2016

[8]. BM Masum, H.H.Masjuki, M.A.Kalam, I.M.Rizwanul Fattah, S.M. Palash and M.J.Abedin, “Effect ofethanol–gasoline blend on NOx emission in SI engine”, Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.03.046, Vol. 24, pp. 209-222

[9]. Karl Erick Egaback-AVL MTC, Blending of ethanol in gasoline for spark ignition engines, Problem Inventory and Evaporative Measurements, Stockholm University, Sweden, 2005

[10]. Yuan Zhuang, Guang Hong and Jianguo Wang, “Preliminary investigation to combustion in a SI engine with direct ethanol injection and port gasoline injection (EDI+GPI)”, 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Launceston, Australia, 3-7 December 2012

[11]. Cenk Sayin and Mustafa Kemal Balki, “Effect of compression ratio on the emission, performance and combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine fueled with isobuthanol/gasoline blends”, Elsevier, Energy, DOI: 10.1016/, Vol. 82. pp. 550-555

[12]. Amit Kumar Thakur, Ajay Kumar, Kaviti, Roopesh Mehra and K.K.S. Mer, “Progress in performance analysis of ethanol-gasoline blends on SI engine”, Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.056, Vol. 69, pp. 324- 340

[13]. Rong-Horng Chen, Li-Bin Chiang, Chung-Nan Chen and Ta-Hui Lin, “Cold-start emissions of an SI engine using ethanol gasoline blended fuel”, Elsevier, Applied Thermal Engineering, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.01.021, Vol. 31, pp. 1463-1467

[14]. M. Clairotte, T.W. Adam, A.A. Zardini, U. Manfredi, G. Martini, A. Krasenbrink, A. Vicet, E. Tournié and C. Astorga, “Effects of low temperature on the cold start gaseous emissions from light duty vehicles fuelled by ethanol-blended gasoline”, Elsevier, Applied Energy, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.08.010, Vol. 102, pp. 44-54

[15]. Musaab O. El-Faroug, Fuwu Yan, Maji Luo and Richard Fiifi Turkson, “Spark ignition engine combustion, performance and emission products from hydrous ethanol and its blends with gasoline”, Energies, DOI: 10.3390/en9120984, Vol. 9, n. 984, pp. 1-24

[16]. AVL MTC, Investigation on emission effects of alternative fuels, the Norwegian Environment Agency, Sweden, 2015

[17]. S.G. Poulopoulos, D.P. Samaras and C.J. Philippopoulos, “Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels”, Elsevier, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, pp. 4399-4406, April 2001

[18]. Sergio Manzetti and Otto Andersen, “A review of emission products from bioethanol and its blends with gasoline. Background for new guidelines for emission control”, Elsevier, Fuel, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.101, Vol. 140, pp. 293-301

[19]. Larry G.Anderson, “Effects of using renewable fuels on vehicle emissions”, Elsevier, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.011, Vol. 47, pp. 162-172

[20]. N. Jeuland, X. Montagne1 and X. Gautrotet, “Potentiality of ethanol as a fuel for dedicated engine”, Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP, Vol. 59, No. 6, pp. 559-570, 2004

[21]. C. Ananda Srinivasan and C.G. Saravanan, “Study of combustion characteristics of an SI engine fuelled with ethanol and oxygenated fuel additives”, Journal of Sustainable Energy & Environment, Vol. 1, pp. 85-91, 2010

[22]. M. Bahattin Celik, “Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine”, Elsevier, Applied Thermal Engineering, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.10.028, Vol. 28, pp. 396–404,

[23]. Mustafa Kemal Balki and Cenk Sayin, “The effect of compression ratio on the performance, emissions and combustion of an SI (spark ignition) engine fuelled with pure ethanol, methanol and unleaded gasoline”, Elsevier, Energy, DOI: 10.1016/, Vol. 71, pp. 194-201

[24]. Rodrigo C. Costa and José R. Sodré, “Compression ratio effects on an ethanol/gasoline fuelled engine performance”, Elsevier, Applied Thermal Engineering, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.09.007, Vol. 3, pp. 278-283

[25]. Farha Tabassum Ansari, Abhishek Prakash Verma and Alok Chaube, “Effect on Performance and Emissions of SI Engine Using Ethanol as Blend Fuel Under Varying Compression Ratio”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 2, n. 12, pp. 848-864, Dec 2013

[26]. Farha Tabassum Ansari1 and Abhishek Prakash Verma, “Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend for Spark ignition engine”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 1, n. 5, pp. 1-10, July 2012

[27]. Bambang Sudarmanta, Bambang Junipitoyo, Ary Bachtiar Krisna Putra and I Nyoman Sutantra, “Influence of the compression ratio and ignition timing on sinjai engine performance with 50% bioethanol-gasoline blended fuel”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, n. 4, pp. 2768- 2774, February 2016

[28]. Necati Türköz, Barıs Erkus, M. Ihsan Karamangil, Ali Surmen and Nurullah Arslanog lu, “Experimental investigation of the effect of E85 on engine performance and emissions under various ignition timings”, Elsevier, Fuel, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.009, Vol. 115, pp. 826–832

[29]. Marthen Paloboran, I Nyoman Sutantra, Bambang Sudarmanta and Renno FD Dharmawan,”Suitable Injection Duration of Pure Ethanol Fuel for Motorcycle at A High Compression ratio”, Revistadyna, DYNA, DOI: 10.6036/8272, Vol. 92, n. 5, pp. 587-592, September 2017

[30]. H. Serdar Yu¨cesu (2007), “Comparative study of mathematical and experimental analysis of spark ignition engine performance used ethanol–gasoline blend fuel”, Elsevier, Applied Thermal Engineering, DOI: 10.1016/ j.applthermaleng. 2006.07.027, Vol. 27, pp. 358–368

[31]. S. Phuangwongtrakul, K.Wannatong, T. Laungnarutai and W. Wechsatol, “Suitable Ignition Timing and Fuel Injection Duration for Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels in a Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine”, Proc. of the Intl. Conf. on Future Trends in Structural, Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering – FTSCEM, DOI: 10.3850/ 978- 981-07-7021-1-49, pp. 319-42

[32]. Alexandru Radu, Constantin PANA and Niculae NEGURESCU, “An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a bioethanol fuelled SI engine”, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 76, n. 1, pp. 193-200, 2014

[33]. Seung Hyun Yoon and Chang Sik Lee, “Effect of undiluted bioethanol on combustion and emissions reduction in a SI engine at various charge air conditions”, Elsevier, Fuel, DOI:10.1016/j.fuel.2012.02.001, Vol. 97, pp. 887–890,

[34]. Saud Binjuwair and Abdullah Alkudsi, “The effects of varying spark timing on the performance and emission characteristics of a gasoline engine: A study on Saudi Arabian RON91 and RON95”, Elsevier, Fuel, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.04.071, Vol. 180, pp. 558–564

[35]. Cenk Sayin, “The impact of varying spark timing at different octane numbers on the performance and emission characteristics in a gasoline engine”, Elsevier, Fuel, DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.03.013, Vol. 97, pp. 856– 861

[36]. Stephen R Turns, An introduction to combustion, Concept and application, second edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000

[37]. John B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 1998

[38. Goering et al, Engine Performance Measures”, Off road vehicle engineering principles, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2003, Ch 4

[39]. Gholamhassan Najafi, Barat Ghobadian, Talal Yusaf, Seyed Mohammad Safieddin Ardebili and Rizalman Mamat, “Optimization of performance and exhaust emission parameters of a SI (spark ignition) engine with gasolineethanol blended fuels using response surface methodology”, Elsevier, Energy, DOI: 10.1016/, Vol. Xxx, pp. 1- 15

[40]. B.M. Masum, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, S.M. Palash and M. Habibullah, “Effect of alcoholgasoline blends optimization on fuel properties, performance and emissions of a SI engine”, Elsevier, Journal of Cleaner Production, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.032, Vol. 86, pp. 230- 237

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 13, 2017, Art. #43, pp. 410-420

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Bulletin Board


The editorial board is accepting papers.

WSEAS Main Site