WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 13, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 13, 2017

Strength and Stiffness Properties of the Optimum Mix Composition of Cement-less Wastepaper-Based Lightweight Block (CWLB)

AUTHORS: Okeyinka Oriyomi M., Oloke David A., Khatib Jamal M.

Download as PDF

ABSTRACT: The cement-less wastepaper-based lightweight block (CWLB) is a newly developed eco-friendly non-load bearing block manufactured from majorly cellulosic wastes without the use of cement. The main constituents of CWLB includes; wastepaper aggregate (WPA) produced from post-consumer wastepaper, waste additive and sand. This study was conducted to determine its optimum mix composition and the corresponding strength and stiffness properties. The experimentations carried out covered; the optimization of the mix composition of CWLB using the Taguchi statistical optimization technique (TSOT) and the determination of the compressive strength, density, elastic modulus and the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of the optimal CWLB specimen. The findings from the TSOT ascertains that the optimum mix composition of CWLB comprises of processing parameters including; 2.5 WPA/sand ratio, 0.75 water/binder ratio, and 3.5 Metric ton (i.e. 13.7 MPa) compacting force. Also, it was found that the optimal CWLB exhibited; an average compressive strength of 2.71 MPa, an average density of 901.5 kg/m3, an average UPV of 989.9 m/s and an estimated elastic modulus of 883.4 MPa. The comparison of these properties with the applicable standard requirements indicates the suitability of CWLB for non-load bearing application. In addition, the presence of 75% waste content in the mix composition of CWLB indicates its eco-friendliness and its potential to contribute to the sustainability in the construction industry through reduction in natural resources consumption. The innovation presented in this study includes; the development of a suitable optimum mix composition of constituent materials for the novel CWLB, the identification of factors that affects it strength properties and the determination of its engineering properties. Future work will investigate other relevant properties of CWLB which include; capillary water absorption, thermal conductivity, and the reaction to fire

KEYWORDS: Taguchi method, compressive strength, non -loadbearing, block, Wastepaper, Mix composition, Optimization, Density, Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), Elastic modulus


[1] Hoornweg, Daniel; Bhada-Tata, Perinaz. 2012. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. Available at: 986/17388

[2] Hawken, Paul., Lovins, Amory B., Lovins,L.Hunter, (1999) Natural capitalism : creating the next industrial revolution.

[online] Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

[3] U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), (2013) “Sand and gravel (construction) statistics”, in: Kelly, T.D., Matos, G.R., (Eds.), Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 140, Reston

[4] Oss, H.G. and Padovani, A.C. (2003) Cement manufacture and the environment part II: environmental challenges and opportunities. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 7(1), pp. 93-126.

[5] Mehta, P.K., (2002) Greening of the Concrete Industry for Sustainable Development. ACI Concrete International, 24(7): pp. 23-28.

[6] Okeyinka Oriyomi M., Oloke David A., Khatib Jamal M., (2015a) A Review on Recycled Use of Solid Wastes in Building Materials. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, Vol: 9, No:12. Available at:

[7] Ashori, A., Tabarsa, T. and Valizadeh, I. (2011) Fiber reinforced cement boards made from recycled newsprint paper. Materials Science and Engineering,

[online], 528(25), pp. 7801- 7804.

[8] Akinwumi, I.I., Olatunbosun, O.M., Olofinnade, O.M. and Awoyera, P.O. (2014) Structural Evaluation of Lightweight Concrete Produced Using Waste Newspaper and Office Paper. Civil and Environmental Research

[online], 6(7), pp. 160-167.

[9] Modry,S. (2001) Use of Waste Paper as a Constituent of Concrete. Recovery and recycling of paper international symposium, Thomas Telford Publishing, United Kingdom. pp.77-80.

[10] Fuller,B., Fafitis,A. and Santamaria,J. (2006) Structural Properties of a New Material Made of Waste Paper AEI 2006: Building Integration Solutions. ASCE, pp.1-16.

[11] Esmeralda, Y. A. O.; Marcos, A. E. S.; Mario Rabelo S.; Utilization of wastepaper to manufacture low density boards. Bioresource Technology, 2000, 73, 77 –79.

[12] Aciu, C., Iluţiu–Varvara, D.A., Cobirzan, N. and Balog, A. (2014) Recycling of paper waste in the composition of plastering mortars. Procedia Technology

[online], 12pp. 295-300

[13] Titzman, L.C. (2006) Analysis of low-cost building material for the MixAlco process. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University.Available electronically from


[14] Okeyinka Oriyomi M. and Idowu Oluwatobi J. (2014) Assessment of the Suitability of Paper Waste as an Engineering Material. Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 724-727

[15] Decard J. D.; West R. P.; Prichard S. J (2001)The impact response of recycled paper waste concrete. In : Ravindra Dhir K., Mukesh C. Limbachiya Ed., Proceedings of the International symposium on recovery and recycling of paper ,United Kingdom, 2001,81- 92

[16] Yun,H., Jung,H. and Choi,C. (2007) Mechanical properties of papercrete containing waste paper . 18th International Conference on Composite Materials.


[17] Mohamad Shukeri, R., Ghani, A. and Naser, A. (2008) Concrete Mix With Wastepaper. 2nd International Conference On Built Environment In Developing Countries (ICBEDC 2008).

[online]. Available at: GINEERING_AND_CONSTRUCTION_6.pdf

[18] Okeyinka O.M., David D.A, Jamal Khatib. (2015b). Development of Environmentally Friendly Light weight block from Waste paper. 2nd International Sustainable Buildings Symposium (ISBS 2015), 28-30 May, Gazi University, Ankara –Turkiye. 406-416. Available At:

[19] Okeyinka O.M., Oloke D.A., Khatib J.M. (2016) Salient Parameters Influencing the Strength Properties of Cement-Less Wastepaper Based Lightweight Block. Fourth International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies (SCMT4)

[online]. University of Nevada, Nevada, Las Vegas 7-11 August. Available at: < df >.

[20] Roy, R.K., 1990. A Primer on the Taguchi Method. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp.100-154.

[21] Montgomery D.C., (2013) Design and Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley &Sons, Inc., 2013

[22] Nuruddin M.F., Bayuaji R.(2009) Application of Taguchi’s approach in the optimization of mix proportion for Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash Foamed Concrete. International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering IJCEE: Vol 9 (9) pp.121-129

[23] Davies R., Coole T., Osypiw D., (2015), A review of traditional and Taguchi design of Experiment: devising a method selection criteria, Proceedings of 25th Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom 2015, pp.308-315.

[24] Zarmai, M., Ekere, N., Oduoza, C. and Amalu, E. (2016) Optimization of thermomechanical reliability of solder joints in crystalline silicon solar cell assembly. Microelectronics Reliability

[online], 59 pp. 117-125 .

[25] BSI (2000). BS EN 772-13: Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of net and gross dry density of masonry units (except for natural stone). British Standards Institute.

[26] BSI (2011). BS EN 772-1: Methods of test for masonry units. Determination of compressive strength. British Standards Institute.

[27] BSI (1986). BS EN 1881:1986: Testing concrete. Recommendations for measurement of velocity of ultrasonic pulses in concrete, (1986) British Standards Institute.

[28] BSI (2004). BS EN 12504-4:2004: Testing concrete. Determination of ultrasonic pulse velocity, (2004), British Standards Institute.

[29] BSI (2011). BS EN 772-4: Specification for masonry units. Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry units. British Standards Institute.

[30] BSI (1975). BS EN 2028: Specification for precast concrete blocks (1975), British Standards Institute.

[31] Brooks, J. (2014) Concrete and masonry movements.

[online] Butterworth-Heinemann.

[32] Santamaria J., Fuller B., Fafitis A, (2007) Structural properties of a new material made of waste paper. Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements XIII, WIT Transactions on Modelling and Simulation, 46, pp.557-567.

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 13, 2017, Art. #34, pp. 335-345

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Bulletin Board


The editorial board is accepting papers.

WSEAS Main Site