WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 13, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 13, 2017

The Impacts of Moisture Content on Performance and Emissions of a Four-Cylinder SI Engine Running with Fusel Oil –Gasoline Blends

AUTHORS: Omar I. Awad, R. Mamat, M. M. Noor, F. Yusop, I. M. Yusri

Download as PDF

ABSTRACT: Biofuels from Biomass are meant to decrease significantly dependence on fossil oil and reduce the environmental influences in energy use. Fusel oil one of biofuel that composed of a mixture of alcohols. Fusel oil obtained by-product during fermentation of agricultural products such as beet, cone, sweet molasses, grains, potatoes. According to the high research and motor octane rating also a high density of fusel oil compared with other fuels maybe it will get an essential place in the alternative. The main objective of this study was to determine the impacts of moisture on performance and emissions characteristics of a four-cylinder engine running with fusel oil –gasoline blends.The experiments were performed on spark ignition engine under 4500 rpm engine speed, different engine loads and the different blending ratio of gasoline- fusel oil (G100, FBWE20, and FAWE20). In addition, the effects of test fuels upon brake power, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, maximum in-cylinder pressure, and emissions (nitrogen oxide NOx, hydrocarbon HC, carbon monoxide CO, and carbon dioxide CO2) were examined. The heating value of fusel oil after water extracted (FAWE) become 33.8 MJ/kg that improved by 13% compared with original one (FBWE) 29.9 MJ/kg. Mostly at all blending of fusel oil –gasoline the brake power is slightly increased than that of gasoline. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency improved by reduced the water content of fuel oil. Furthermore, the NOx emission decreased with fusel oil -gasoline blends compared with pure gasoline at all engine loads. However, HC, CO, and CO2 emissions increased with fusel oil -gasoline blends. In general, the higher oxygen content and octane number of fusel oil with reducing water content led to improving the engine performance and NOx emission.

KEYWORDS: Fusel Oil, Biofuels, NOx emissions, SI engine, Alternative Fuels, Engine performance


[1] S. K. Thangavelu, A. S. Ahmed, and F. N. Ani, 'Review on bioethanol as alternative fuel for spark ignition engines,' Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 56, pp. 820- 835, 4// 2016.

[2] A. Demirbas, 'Progress and recent trends in biofuels,' Progress in energy and combustion science, vol. 33, pp. 1-18, 2007.

[3] M. Eyidogan, A. N. Ozsezen, M. Canakci, and A. Turkcan, 'Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an SI engine,' Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 2713-2720, 2010.

[4] O. I. Awad, R. Mamat, O. M. Ali, I. M. Yusri, A. A. Abdullah, A. F. Yusop, et al., 'The effect of adding fusel oil to diesel on the performance and the emissions characteristics in a single cylinder CI engine,' Journal of the Energy Institute, vol.

[5] F. Palmer, 'Vehicle performance of gasoline containing oxygenates,' in INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PETROLEUM BASED FUELS AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS. IMECHE CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS 1986-11. PAPER NO C319/86, 1986.

[6] A. Bilgin and I. Sezer, 'Effects of methanol addition to gasoline on the performance and fuel cost of a spark ignition engine,' Energy & Fuels, vol. 22, pp. 2782-2788, 2008.

[7] J. Dernotte, C. Mounaim-Rousselle, F. Halter, and P. Seers, 'Evaluation of butanol–gasoline blends in a port fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine,' Oil & Gas Science and Technology– Revue de l’Institut Français du Pétrole, vol. 65, pp. 345-351, 2010.

[8] M. Lapuerta, O. Armas, and J. M. Herreros, 'Emissions from a diesel–bioethanol blend in an automotive diesel engine,' Fuel, vol. 87, pp. 25- 31, 1// 2008.

[9] O. Doğan, 'The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel engine performance and emissions,' Fuel, vol. 90, pp. 2467-2472, 7// 2011.

[10] R. L. Furey, 'Volatility characteristics of gasoline-alcohol and gasoline-ether fuel blends,' SAE Technical Paper 0148-7191, 1985.

[11] R.-H. Chen, L.-B. Chiang, C.-N. Chen, and T.- H. Lin, 'Cold-start emissions of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuel,' Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 31, pp. 1463-1467, 2011.

[12] N. Dörmő, K. Bélafi-Bakó, L. Bartha, U. Ehrenstein, and L. Gubicza, 'Manufacture of an environmental-safe biolubricant from fusel oil by enzymatic esterification in solvent-free system,' Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 21, pp. 229-234, 2004.

[13] A. Özgülsün, F. Karaosmanoglu, and M. Tüter, 'Esterification reaction of oleic acid with a fusel oil fraction for production of lubricating oil,' Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 77, pp. 105-109, 2000.

[14] Z. KÜÇÜCÜK and K. CEYLAN, 'Potential utilization of fusel oil: A kinetic approach for production of fusel oil esters through chemical reaction,' Turkish Journal of Chemistry, vol. 22, pp. 289-300, 1998.

[15] Y. Icingur and A. Calam, 'The effects of the blends of fusel oil and gasoline on performance and emissions in a spark ignition engine,' Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, vol. 27, pp. 143-149, 2012.

[16] A. Calam, Y. İçingür, H. Solmaz, and H. Yamık, 'A Comparison of Engine Performance and the Emission of Fusel Oil and Gasoline Mixtures at Different Ignition Timings,' International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 12, pp. 767-772, 2015.

[17] M. C. Ferreira, A. J. Meirelles, and E. A. Batista, 'Study of the fusel oil distillation process,' Industrial & engineering chemistry Research, vol. 52, pp. 2336-2351, 2013.

[18] H. Solmaz, 'Combustion, performance and emission characteristics of fusel oil in a spark ignition engine,' Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 133, pp. 20-28, 2015.

[19] S. M. Atnaw, S. A. Sulaiman, and S. Yusup, 'Influence of fuel moisture content and reactor temperature on the calorific value of syngas resulted from gasification of oil palm fronds,' The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, 2014.

[20] A. Demirbaş, 'Calculation of higher heating values of biomass fuels,' Fuel, vol. 76, pp. 431- 434, 1997.

[21] A. Demirbas, 'Relationships between heating value and lignin, moisture, ash and extractive contents of biomass fuels,' Energy, Exploration & Exploitation, vol. 20, pp. 105-111, 2002.

[22] A. Demirbas, 'Effects of moisture and hydrogen content on the heating value of fuels,' Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, vol. 29, pp. 649-655, 2007.

[23] R. C. Costa and J. R. Sodré, 'Hydrous ethanol vs. gasoline-ethanol blend: Engine performance and emissions,' Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 287-293, 2// 2010.

[24] X. Gu, Z. Huang, J. Cai, J. Gong, X. Wu, and C.-f. Lee, 'Emission characteristics of a sparkignition engine fuelled with gasoline-n-butanol blends in combination with EGR,' Fuel, vol. 93, pp. 611-617, 3// 2012.

[25] M. Ghazikhani, M. Hatami, B. Safari, and D. D. Ganji, 'Experimental investigation of performance improving and emissions reducing in a two stroke SI engine by using ethanol additives,' Propulsion and Power Research, vol. 2, pp. 276-283, 12// 2013.

[26] B.-Q. He, M.-B. Liu, J. Yuan, and H. Zhao, 'Combustion and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fuelled with n-butanol–gasoline blends,' Fuel, vol. 108, pp. 668-674, 6// 2013.

[27] M. B. Celik, 'Experimental determination of suitable ethanol–gasoline blend rate at high compression ratio for gasoline engine,' Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 28, pp. 396-404, 2008.

[28] K. Nakata, S. Utsumi, A. Ota, K. Kawatake, T. Kawai, and T. Tsunooka, 'The effect of ethanol fuel on a spark ignition engine,' SAE Technical Paper 0148-7191, 2006.

[29] S. Poulopoulos, D. Samaras, and C. Philippopoulos, 'Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels,' Atmospheric environment, vol. 35, pp. 4399- 4406, 2001.

[30] B. De, P. Bose, and R. Panua, 'An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine,' Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series C, vol. 93, pp. 203- 208, 2012.

[31] P. R. Shah and A. Ganesh, 'A comparative study on influence of fuel additives with edible and non-edible vegetable oil based on fuel characterization and engine characteristics of diesel engine,' Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 102, pp. 800-812, 2016.

[32] R. Daniel, G. Tian, H. Xu, and S. Shuai, 'Ignition timing sensitivities of oxygenated biofuels compared to gasoline in a directinjection SI engine,' Fuel, vol. 99, pp. 72-82, 9// 2012.

[33] A. K. Agarwal, H. Karare, and A. Dhar, 'Combustion, performance, emissions and particulate characterization of a methanol– gasoline blend (gasohol) fuelled medium duty spark ignition transportation engine,' Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 121, pp. 16-24, 2014.

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 13, 2017, Art. #14, pp. 120-128

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Bulletin Board


The editorial board is accepting papers.

WSEAS Main Site