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Peter J. Leggo

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Peter J. Leggo

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development

Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496

Volume 13, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 13, 2017

The Organo-Zeolitic-Soil System: A New Biological Approach to Plant Nutrition

AUTHORS: Peter J. Leggo

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ABSTRACT: A highly effective biological fertilizer (bio-fertilizer) can be produced cheaply in countries that have a source of a suitable type of zeolitic rock (tuff). Such rocks occur worldwide in areas of past or current volcanism. In the event of explosive volcanic activity huge volumes of silicic glass and other debris are projected into the atmosphere. Reaching high altitude the fine material is separated forming ash clouds of fine grained glass shards. On entering water they become thick beds of sediment producing a rock having a high abundance of zeolite. On uplift they are available for open cast quarrying. When mixed with organic waste, either animal or plant, a biological fertilizer is produced. Ammonium ions, from the decomposing organic waste, are captured by the zeolite. When the fertilizer is added to the soil the ammonium ions become oxidised by soil micro-organisms (Crenarchaeota) to nitrate together hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions, reacting with the substrate, provide a range of essential and beneficial plant nutrients. Unlike chemical fertilizers (NPK) the nutrients are delivered slowly as the plant grows and there is little surplus to leach into the ground and thus the bio-fertilizer is not highly susceptible to leaching by rainfall. Adequate phosphate ions are available from the organic waste and potassium, being a more ubiquitous element is present in the soil / organic mixture and acts to back exchange ammonium ions that are oxidized to nitrate as mentioned above.

KEYWORDS: zeolitic tuff, organic waste, ammonium ions, nitrate, crenarchaeota, phosphate, potassium


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[2] P.Leggo, (2015) The Efficacy of the OrganoZeoliticBio-fertilizer. Agrotechnology,4,1, 1000130.

[3] A.Ball, (2006) Energy Inputs in Soil Systems. Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems, 79 – 89. CRC Taylor & Francis, USA.

[4] P.J. Leggo, B. Ledésert, J. Day. (2010) Organozeolitic treatment of mine waste to enhancethe growth of vegetation Eur.J.Mineral 22, 813-823.

[5] P.J.Leggo (2013) Enhancing the Growth of Plants on Coal Waste Using a Biological Fertilizer.Int Jour of Environment and Resource(IJER), 2,3, 59-66.

[6] S.Leininger , T. Urich, M.Schloter, L. Schwark, J. Qi, G.W.Nicol, J.I.Prosser S.C.Schuster & Schleper. (2006) Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils. Letters to Nature, vol 442.17 August 2006.

[7] P.J.Leggo and B.Ledésert. (2009) The stimulation of nitrification in an organically enriched soil by zeolitic tuff and its effect on plant growth. Annuals of Agrarian Science, 7,9-15.

[8] P Süsser and U Schwertmann (1991) Proton buffering mineral horizons of some acid forest soils. Geoderma,49,63-76

[9] D.Chaw (2002) Evaluation of Zeolite Based Fertilizer for Reclamation of Mine Tailings. Final Report prepared for Bioterra Inc., Calgary Alberta, Olds College, Alberta, Canada, 1-16 plus Appendix.

[10] P.J.Leggo and B.Ledésert (2009) OrganoZeolitic-Soil Systems : A New Approach to Plant Nutrition. In: Fertilizers,Properties,Applications and Effects (eds., Langdon R.Elseworth and Paley, W.O), 223-239. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York.

[11] P.J.Leggo, B. Ledésert and Christie, G.(2005) The role of clinoptilolite in organo-zeolitic-soil systems used for phytoremediation. Science of the Total Environment, 363,1-10.

WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1790-5079 / 2224-3496, Volume 13, 2017, Art. #8, pp. 57-65

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

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