WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics

Print ISSN: 1109-9526
E-ISSN: 2224-2899

Volume 16, 2019

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 16, 2019

Retaining Malaysia's Blue Collar Workers in Competitive Manufacturing Industry

AUTHORS: Nazarudin Bujang, Siti Sarah Omar, Fazian Hashim, Noreina Kepal Nasir, Nur Aniza Quantaniah Jusoh

Download as PDF

ABSTRACT: The roles of factory technicians who are responsible and accountable for advance equipment maintenance and uptime in the E&E factory has intensified enormously. Substantial researches on turnover issues focused on white collar workers instead of blue collar workers has instigated the need of the study. There is also needs to identify factors which influenced factory technician’s turnover because the training required to develop skillful and competent technicians is costly and lengthy. The hypothesis was tested and validated via quantitative statistical analysis which identified the influential factors and determined the connection between independent variables and turnover intention as dependent variable. Descriptive statistic, reliability test, mean comparison, and correlation test were utilized in the analysis. The results indicated that career growth, discriminatory treatment and further education are influential factors and have significant association with turnover intentions. The most influential and significant factor was career growth followed by discriminatory treatment, and further education was the least significant factor. The outcome of this research was used in developing retention plans and strategies to retain the factory technicians who play crucial role in manufacturing industry performance.

KEYWORDS: Factory Technicians Turnover, Costly and Lengthy Training, Career Growth, Discriminatory Treatment, Further Education, Retention Plan and Strategy


[1] Davenport, T. (2011). The Future of The Manufacturing Workforce. Report One: Technology and the Manufacturing Workforce: An Overview.

[2] David, M., & Saeipoor, N. (2018). Integrating Soft Skills into Courses in Malaysian Public Universities. IARS'International Research Journal, 8(1).

[3] Griffeth R. W. & Hom, P. W. (2001) Retaining Valued Employees. Sage Publications. International Education and Professional Publisher, London UK.

[4] Yamazakia, Y. & Petchdee, S. (2015). Turnover intention, organizational commitment, and specific job satisfaction among production employees in Thailand. Journal of Business and Management, 4(4), 22-38. DOI: 10.12735/jbm.v4i4p22.

[5] March, J.G., & Simon, H.A. (1958). Organizations. Oxford, England: Wiley.

[6] Mobley, W. H. (1977), 'Intermediate Linkages in the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover', Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 62, pp. 237-240.

[7] Perez, Mylene (2008), “Turnover Intent”, Dept. Business Administration, University of Zurich, Accessed on 10 April 2014 11:43 @ mylene_perez.pdf

[8] Price, J.L. and Mueller, C.W. (1986), 'Absenteeism and Turnover among Hospital Employees', JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, U.S.

[9] Mahmut, O., Ozgur, D. & Tugba, K. (2015). The effect of leader-member exchange on turnover intention and organizational citizenship behaviour: The mediating role of meaningful work, Proceedings of the 9th International management Conference.

[10] Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia (MHRM2103), “Labour Market Report 2012”, Published on Wednesday, 03 April 2013 05:46 @ /169-labour-market-report-2013

[11] Department of Statistics, Malaysia (2013), “Gross Domestic Product Report: 2005 – 2012”, Released on 15 May 2013

[12] Neese, B. (2016). The hidden cost of employee turnover. Retrieved from

[13] Monroe Consulting Group (2015), Monroe Release 2015 Malaysia Job Market Report. Retrieved from mpany-news/company-news/monroe-release2015-malaysia-job-market-report

[14] Cascio, W. F. (2006). Managing human resources:Productivity, quality of work life, profits (7thed.). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin/McGrawHill.

[15] Mitchell, T.R., Holtom, B.C., Lee, T.W., Sablynski, C.J. and Erez, M. (2001), ‘‘Why people stay: using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover’’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on BUSINESS and ECONOMICS Nazarudin Bujang, Siti Sarah Omar, Fazian Hashim, Noreina Kepal@Nasir, Nur Aniza Quantaniah Jusoh E-ISSN: 2224-2899 454 Volume 16, 2019

[16] Sommer, R.D. (2000).“Retaining intellectual capital in the 21st century”.SHRM White Paper.

[17] Cooke, F.L. (2002), “The Important role of the Maintenance Workforce in Technological Change: A Much Neglected Aspect”. Human Relations 2002 55: 963.

[18] Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., &Vardaman, J. M. (2010). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence based strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives.

[19] Heneman, R. L., & Werner, J. M. (2005). Merit pay - linking pay to performance in a changing. Greenwich: IAP

[20] Noe, R. A., J. R. Hollenbeck, B. Gerhart, and P. M. Wright (2008) Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

[21] Lazear, E.P, 1998. Personnel Economics: Past Lessons and Future Directions Presidential Address to the Society of Labor Economists, Journal of Labor Economics, 17(2).

[22] Martocchio, J. J. 2004 Strategic Compensation: A Human Resource Management Approach, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[23] Milkovich, G. T., and J. M. Newman 2004 Compensation, 8th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

[24] Kyndt, Eand Baert. H., (2012), “The Learning Intentions of Low-Qualified Employees: A Multilevel Approach”, Adult Education Quarterly 2013 63: 165.

[25] Wiersma, W. (1995). Research methods in education: An introduction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

[26] Bartik, T. (2001), “Jobs for the Poor: Can Labour Demand Policies Help?”,Russel Sage Foundation, New York.

[27] Gatta, M. (2005), “Not Just Getting By: The New Era of Flexible Workforce Developmen”,, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.

[28] Lesiecki W. (2002). Shell technology: The shape of things to come in e-business. Hear Rev 9(10):48-51.

[29] Barak ME, Nissly JA and Levin A (2001), “Antecedents to Retention and Turnover Among Child Welfare, Social Work and Other Human Service Employees: What Can We Learn From Past Research? A Review and Meta-analysis”, Soc. Serv. Rev., 75: 625-661

[30] Fishbein, M & Ajzen, I (1975) Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, ARRB Group Ltd.

[31] Harrington, J.M (2001) Health effects of shift work and extended hours of work. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2001, 58:68-72.

[32] Ahmad (2011), “The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Employee Engagement and Intention to Stay Among Manufacturing Technicians”, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok Kedah DA

[33] Weng Q & McElroy JC (2012), “Organizational Career Growth.Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions”, Journal of Vocational Behavior 80 (2012) 256 – 265, Elsevier Inc.

[34] Malhotra, N. K. (2010). AN APPLIED ORIENTATION (6th edition). Pearson Education.

[35] Bernardin, H. J. (2010). Human resource management: An experiential approach. Boston:McGraw-Hill Irwin Stewart and Brown 2011

[36] Stewart, G.L. and Brown, K.G. 'Human Resource Management. Linking strategy to practice' 2'd edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc. (2011).

WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-9526 / 2224-2899, Volume 16, 2019, Art. #49, pp. 444-455

Copyright Β© 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0