WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems

Print ISSN: 1109-2734
E-ISSN: 2224-266X

Volume 16, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of WSEAS Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Volume 16, 2017

On the Internal Structure of Piezo-Electric Devices: Closed and Open Loop Optimal Strategies

AUTHORS: Andres G. Garcia, Luciano Pons, Emanuel Perotti

Download as PDF

ABSTRACT: Piezo-electric devices possess the ability to produce high voltages without load. However, to harvest this energy, the complex and capacitive internal structure must be deal with. This capacitive behavior makes the AC-DC conversion too involved. If a buck-boost topology is to be designed to regulate the DC output, the discontinuous mode provides constant input impedance for small amount of power. However, the input impedance of a buck-boost is a function of the switching frequency and inductance, bounding the maximum values. This open-loop strategy is adequate for small size PCB applications, for instance in energy harvesting applied to sensors, whereas, closed-loop and optimal control algorithms will improve the output power. In this paper a closed-loop optimal control algorithm to work with any source of electrical input voltage in a buck-boost converter is considered. This optimal control yields a much bigger output power when compared to the case of non-optimal control. With piezo-electric devices, the output power harvested shows a significant improvement, thus mitigating their natural drop in open loop. Some simulations as well as comparisons with real measurements using two different kind of commercial piezo-electric devices are presented. On the other hand, the internal structure of piezo-electric generators is explored using an open loop optimal control strategy along with an intermediate active circuit. Following the reading of the measurements and the theory developed in this paper, conclusions and future work are provided.

KEYWORDS: Closed-Loop, Optimal Control, Piezo-Electric, Internal Structure, Buck-Boost, Discontinuous Mode


[1] NamAdnan Harb, Energy harvesting: Stateofthe-art, Renewable Energy: Generation and Application, Vol.36, Issue 10, 2011, pp. 2641-2654.

[2] R. D'hulst, T. Sterken, R. Puers, G. Deconninck and J. Driesen. Power Processing Circuits for Piezoelectric Vibration-Based energy Harvesters, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Publishing House, Vol.57, Issue 12, 2010, pp. 4170-4177.

[3] Darmayuda I. Made, Yuan Gao San Jeow Cheng, Meng Tong Tan and Minkyu Je. Optimum Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, with Buck Boost Circuit in Discontinuous Conduction Mode. International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 6, 2012.

[4] Andrés García. Singular Optimal Control Applied to DC-AC Converters. I Congreso Argentino de Energías Sustentables, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2014.

[5] Hans P. Geering. Optimal Control with Engineering Applications. Springer, 2007.

[6] E. Lefeuvre, D. Audigier, C. Richard and D. Guyomar. Buck-Boost Converter for Sensorless Power Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,Vol. 22, Number 5, pp. 2018-2025, 2007.

[7] Jina Kim, L. Griso, Jeong Kim, Dong Sam Ha and Daniel Inman. Electrical Modeling of Piezoelectric Ceramics for Analysis and Evaluation of Sensory Systems. IEEE Sensors Applications. Symposium, Atlanta, GA, USA. Pp. 122-127, 2008.

[8] ANSI/IEEE Std 176-1987. IEEE Standard on Piezoelectricity. IEEE, 1987.

[9] Machado SP, Febbo M, Gatti CD and Ramirez JM. Non-resonant nergy harvester with elastic constraints for low rotating frequencies. 8th Micromechanics and microsystems 2017, 23-25 August, Uppsala, Suecia.

[10] Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio. Semiconductor Device Modeling with Spice. McGraw–Hill Professional.1993.

[11] Hamed Mashinchi Mahery, Saman Torabzad, Mehran Sabahi., Ebrahim Babaei. Modeling and stability of buckboost dc-dc converter based on Ztransform. (IICPE), 2012 IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics.

WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems, ISSN / E-ISSN: 1109-2734 / 2224-266X, Volume 16, 2017, Art. #23, pp. 196-204

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Bulletin Board


The editorial board is accepting papers.

WSEAS Main Site