Plenary Lecture

Haptic Feedback in Robot-Assisted Cardiovascular Interventions

Professor Javad Dargahi
Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Concordia University
Canada
E-mail: dargahi@encs.concordia.ca

 

Abstract: Cardiac diseases are recognized as the leading cause of mortality, hospitalization, and medical drug prescription in the industrial countries, e.g. Canada and the USA. The gold standard in the minimally invasive treatment of the coronary artery stenosis is the percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI). In this procedure, a guidewire is introduced into an artery and guided towards the stenosis. A transcatheter balloon or stent angioplasty is performed once the proper placement of the wire is confirmed visually. The robotic PCI systems have become commercially available since 2007. The robotic PCI systems not only have led to significantly superior clinical outcomes, but also resulted in reduced X-Ray dosage absorbed by the patient and physician. In addition, they have offered more precision in the measurement of stenosis length and stent size. Further more, they have facilitated the dexterous stent or balloon deployment, and reduced the ergonomic concerns for the surgical staffs. A robotic PCI system is comprised of a surgeon console and a surgical robot. A control software monitors feedbacks from tactile sensors on the robot and utilizes control algorithms to mediate the translation of the commands from surgeon console to the surgical robot. In spite of all the advantages, the loss of haptic feedback during surgery is the top shortcoming of the current robotic PCI systems. Many studies have identified the absence of haptic feedback as an origin for complications during the operations. The current research in our lab on the development of haptic system for robot-assisted cardiovascular interventional surgeries is divided into three fields: design and development of sensorless methods for force measurement, miniaturized optical tactile sensors, and strategies for force control of highly flexible catheters. In this plenary speach, the current state of research on the tactile sensors, haptic rendering, and sensor less techniques for haptic force feedback during robotic PCI will be presented.

Brief Biography of the Speaker: Dr. Dargahi is a professor in the Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering Department of Concordia University. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering from UK, and his Ph.D. degree from Glasgow Caledonian University in the area of “Robotic tactile sensing”. He was a Senior Post-Doctoral Research Associate with the Micromachining/Medical Robotics Group at Simon Fraser University. His research area includes: Design and fabrication of haptic sensors and feedback systems for minimally invasive surgery and robotics. Dr. Dargahi has developed innovative methods implementing mechatronics in medicine and has written a book with the title of “Mechatronics in Medicine”. He has authored over 170 journal and conference articles, three books published by McGraw-Hill and Wiley, and a few patents in the area of his research. One of his books “Artificial Tactile Sensing in Biomedical Engineering” was the runner-up for the prestige PROSE award, considered as Oscars of the Association of American Publishers. Professor Dargahi was a principal reviewer of several major NASA proposals in the area of “Crew health and performance in space exploration mission”. Dr. Dargahi is among the 10 top university professors in Montreal that recently received a major research and training initiative by the federal funding agency.

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