**Plenary Lecture
Remarks on the Foundation of Quantum Information Systems**

**Professor Gregory L. Light**

Department of Finance

Providence College

Rhode Island, USA

E-mail: GLIGHT@providence.edu

**Abstract: ** Quantum information systems are based on Pauli spin matrices, predicting probabilities. We generalize Pauli matrices in two ways: [1] (a + bi) and (a - bi) instead of just i and -i in the matrix labeled as sigma y, and [2] rank 3 instead of 2, i.e., into 3 x 3 matrices. Accordingly, all (anti) particles, fermions and bosons alike, are derived from the mass-shell equation by colliding electromagnetic waves in a variety of osculating angles with pair-productions of particle-waves spinning along two semi-circles pausing at the osculating angles, manifesting as rest masses and electric charges with 90o for electrons and positrons, 60o for (anti) up-quarks, 30o for (anti) down-quarks, and 0o for (anti) neutrinos (so only left-handed). The (position) wavefunction of a particle is the magnitude of the electric field of the spinning wave existing in the invisible universe of electromagnetic wave energies of a diagonal spacetime 4-manifold, with infinite probability density at the center of the two spinning circles where the particle appears in the visible universe of particles. As we increase the rank of Pauli matrices, we simultaneously reduce the dimensionality of Dirac spinors from 4 to 1, as described by three alternative frames. As such, we cast doubt on the utilities of the gamma matrices in the Standard Model; in this connection, we have also carefully studied the Lagrangian therein and found that the product of the Maxwell field curvature tensor F with its Hodge dual, while yielding the desired energy densities of electromagnetic waves, does not logically imply the ad hoc factorization of the product into one matrix composed of the needed electric field with the magnetic field to account for electromagnetism and the other matrix with the electric field divided by c2 . While an electron can generate electromagnetic waves, the converse is not true. While the electric field and the magnetic field are symmetric in electromagnetic waves, they are not in electromagnetism with one being radial and the other, sideways. We note that suppressing physical constants and inattention to units can lead to mistakes, e.g., the Ampere's law. Otherwise, based on our combined spacetime 4-manifold, we give a simple proof of the CPT theorem and an explanation of the baryon asymmetry. On the whole, our theory presents a local spacetime geometry of (t + it, x + iy, y + iz, z + ix), which can actually be discerned from the pair of equations for the probability amplitudes of the two spin states of an electron in a magnetic field, with a calendar time t to cover a clock time (it) and a spatial distance (x2 + y2 + z2)1/2 to cover the circumference of this imaginary clock. With this perspective, quantum computing should derive benefit from the quotient-space topology of the wave universe.

**Brief Biography of the Speaker: ** Dr. Gregory L. Light is a Professor of Finance of Providence College (PC), where he has been teaching Statistics, Operations Research, among other quantitative subjects. Passionate in his subjects and caring for his students, he was nominated for the 2005 - 2006 Joseph R. Accinno Faculty Teaching Award by the PC Students Congress. Equally engaged in has been his collaborative scholarly activities with his colleagues, opening new research avenues mutually. Dr. Light received his B.A. in Economics from National Taiwan University, M.B.A. from University of Illinois, Ph.D. in Business Economics and Public Policy from University of Michigan, followed by an M.A. in Mathematics by staying at UM-Ann Arbor and then a Ph.D.-ABD in Applied Mathematics from Brown University. The dual tracks of his pursuits evolved from his interests in Mathematical Economics, Dynamical Systems and Physics. In Economics, he has proposed the analytic methodology of “relative derivatives” as an integration of elasticities in Economics with derivatives in Mathematics. In Physics, he has recently connected his “combined spacetime four-manifold” with the Standard Model. He plans to continue his interest in mathematical modeling, extending his research and enriching his teaching.